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1 What Is Anthropology?
1.1 The Study of Humanity, or "Anthropology Is Vast"
1.1.1 The Heart of Anthropology: Central Narrative and Commitments
1.1.2 Central Commitment #1: Exploring Sociocultural Diversity
1.1.3 Central Commitment #2: Understanding How Societies Hold Together
1.1.4 Central Commitment #3: Examining the Interdependence of Humans and Nature
1.2 The Four-Field Approach: Four Approaches within the Guiding Narrative
1.2.1 Biological Anthropology
1.2.2 Archaeology
1.2.3 Cultural Anthropology
1.2.4 Linguistic Anthropology
1.2.5 How the Four Fields Work Together: The Example of Race
1.3 Overcoming Ethnocentrism
1.3.1 Enculturation and Ethnocentrism
1.3.2 Primitivism and Orientalism
1.4 Western Bias in Our Assumptions about Humanity
1.4.1 Primitivism and Orientalism in Popular Culture
1.4.2 The Bias of Backwardness
1.5 Holism, Anthropology’s Distinctive Approach
1.5.1 Society as an Integrated Whole
1.5.2 Sources of Contradiction, Conflict, and Change
1.6 Cross-Cultural Comparison and Cultural Relativism
1.6.1 Relativism Is Not “Anything Goes”
1.6.2 Morality, Activism, and Cultural Relativism
1.7 Reaching for an Insider’s Point of View
1.7.1 The Challenge of Representing Others
1.7.2 Collaborative Methods of Representation
1.7.3 Working across Cultures toward Common Goals
1.7.4 Suggested Readings
2 Methods: Cultural and Archaeological
2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
2.1.1 Archaeological Techniques
2.1.2 Archaeological Dating Methods
2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
2.2.1 Early Efforts
2.2.2 Salvage Anthropology
2.2.3 Museum Collections
2.2.4 Interpretation and Voice
2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
2.3.1 The Development of Ethnography and Ethnology
2.3.2 Perspective and Interpretation in Ethnography
2.4 Participant Observation and Interviewing
2.4.1 Participant Observation
2.4.2 Interviewing Informants
2.4.3 Ethical Considerations
2.5 Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis
2.5.1 Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Information
2.5.2 Modeling
2.5.3 The Science of Anthropology
2.6 Collections
2.6.1 Archives
2.6.2 Three-Dimensional Collections
2.6.3 Ownership
2.6.4 Suggested Readings
3 Culture Concept Theory: Theories of Cultural Change
3.1 The Homeyness of Culture
3.2 The Winkiness of Culture
3.3 The Elements of Culture
3.3.1 Culture Is What We Make
3.3.2 Culture Is What We Do
3.3.3 Culture Is What We Think
3.4 The Aggregates of Culture
3.4.1 Symbols
3.4.2 Ritual
3.4.3 Social Structure
3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
3.5.1 Evolution, Adaptation, and Historical Particularism
3.5.2 Functionalism
3.5.3 Structuralism
3.5.4 Ontology
3.6 The Paradoxes of Culture
3.6.1 Paradox 1: Culture Is Continuous, but It Changes
3.6.2 Paradox 2: Culture Is Bounded but Mobile
3.6.3 Paradox 3: Culture Is Consensual but Contested
3.6.4 Paradox 4: Culture Is Shared, but It Varies
3.6.5 Suggested Readings
4 Biological Evolution and Early Human Evidence
4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
4.1.1 Looking to the Deep Past
4.1.2 Exploring What It Means to Be Human
4.2 What’s in a Name? The Science of Taxonomy
4.2.1 Defining the Science of Taxonomy
4.2.2 Defining a Species
4.3 It’s All in the Genes! The Foundation of Evolution
4.3.1 The Units of Life
4.3.2 Gregor Mendel and the Laws of Heredity
4.3.3 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
4.4 Evolution in Action: Past and Present
4.4.1 Early Evolutionists and the Fixity of Species
4.4.2 Charles Darwin’s Role in Changing Views of the Natural World
4.4.3 Understanding Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
4.5 What Is a Primate?
4.5.1 What Is a Primate?
4.5.2 Primate Behavioral Variation
4.5.3 Explaining Primate Success
4.5.4 Primate Classification and Taxonomy
4.6 Origin of and Classification of Primates
4.6.1 Understanding Concepts of Time
4.6.2 Fossils and Dating Methods
4.6.3 Making Sense of Fossils
4.6.4 Relative Dating Techniques
4.6.5 Absolute Dating Techniques
4.7 Our Ancient Past: The Earliest Hominins
4.7.1 Walking on Two Feet
4.7.2 Miocene Hominids
4.7.3 Pliocene Hominins
4.7.4 Landmarks and Questions
5 The Genus Homo and the Emergence of Us
5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
5.1.1 Putting Homo into Context
5.1.2 The Challenge of Defining the Genus Homo
5.2 Tools and Brains: Homo habilis, Homo ergaster, and Homo erectus
5.2.1 The Toolmakers
5.2.2 Homo ergaster
5.2.3 Homo erectus : A Success Story
5.2.4 The Homo ergaster and Homo erectus Debate
5.3 The Emergence of Us: The Archaic Homo
5.3.1 Defining the Archaic Homo
5.3.2 Early Archaic Homo
5.3.3 Late Archaic Homo
5.3.4 Rethinking the Neanderthal
5.3.5 The Denisovans
5.3.6 New Homo Genus Discovery Homo longi, or Dragon Man
5.3.7 Regional Evolutionary Adaptations: Homo floresiensis
5.3.8 The Emergence of Us: Homo sapiens
5.4 Tracking enomes: Our Human Story Unfolds
5.4.1 Mitochondrial Eve
5.4.2 How the Genome of Lice Can Fill in the Gaps
5.4.3 Natural Selection and Human Variation: Are Humans Still Evolving?
5.4.4 Additional Resources
6 Language and Communication
6.1 The Emergence and Development of Language
6.1.1 Animal Communication
6.1.2 A Waggle is Not a Word: The Complexity of Language
6.1.3 Simple Signs and Pant-Hoots: Language in Primates
6.1.4 Human Biology and the Emergence of Language
6.1.5 Hominin Material Culture
6.2 Language and the Mind
6.2.1 Linguistic Relativism and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
6.2.2 Linguistic Universals and Folk Taxonomies
6.2.3 Meaning and Metaphor
6.3 Language, Community, and Culture
6.3.1 Language Acquisition and Language Socialization
6.4 Performativity and Ritual
6.4.1 The Performativity of Language: Speaking as Action
6.4.2 The Performativity of Ritual Language
6.4.3 Informal Back-Talk: Teasing, Grumbling, and Gossip
6.5 Language and Power
6.5.1 Gender and Language
6.5.2 Race and Ethnicity
6.5.3 Suggested Readings
7 Work, Life, and Value: Economic Anthropology
7.1 Economies: Two Ways to Study Them
7.2 Modes of Subsistence
7.3 Gathering and Hunting
7.3.1 The Hadza: Gathering-Hunting as a Subsistence Strategy
7.3.2 The Sociocultural Complex of Gathering and Hunting
7.3.3 Contemporary Challenges to Gathering and Hunting Societies
7.3.4 The Original Affluent Society: Comparing Ancient and Contemporary Foragers
7.4 Pastoralism
7.4.1 The Bedouin: Flexible Pastoralism
7.4.2 The Sociocultural Complex of Pastoralism
7.4.3 Contemporary Challenges to Pastoralism
7.5 Plant Cultivation: Horticulture and Agriculture
7.5.1 Two Methods of Cultivation: Extensive Horticulture and Intensive Agriculture
7.5.2 The Kayapó: Flexible Horticulture
7.5.3 The Sociocultural Complex of Plant Cultivation
7.5.4 Contemporary Challenges of Farming Societies
7.6 Exchange, Value, and Consumption
7.6.1 Forms of Exchange
7.6.2 Money
7.7 Industrialism and Postmodernity
7.7.1 Cloth, Factories, and Slavery: The Rise of Industrialism
7.7.2 Colonialism and Global Capitalism
7.7.3 Modernity, the Sociocultural Complex of Industrial Societies
7.7.4 Postindustrialism and Postmodernity
7.7.5 Environmental Impacts of Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
8 Authority, Decisions, and Power: Political Anthropology
8.1 Colonialism and the Categorization of Political Systems
8.2 Acephalous Societies: Bands and Tribes
8.3 Centralized Societies: Chiefdoms and States
8.3.1 Chiefdoms
8.3.2 Imperial Chiefdoms: Hawaii and Asante
8.3.3 States
8.3.4 Archaic States: The Aztecs
8.3.5 Ideology and Hegemony
8.4 Modern Nation-States
8.4.1 Colonial and Postcolonial States
8.4.2 “Fragile” States and “Failed” States: The Legacies of Colonialism
8.4.3 Nation-States and Globalization
8.5 Resistance, Revolution, and Social Movements
9 Social Inequalities
9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
9.1.1 Social Stratification
9.1.2 Levels of Inequality
9.1.3 Classic Theories of Social Inequality
9.1.4 Power
9.1.5 Agency
9.1.6 Resistance
9.2 Systems of Inequality
9.2.1 Race and Racism
9.2.2 Class
9.2.3 Gender and Patriarchy
9.3 Intersections of Inequality
9.3.1 Intersectionality
9.3.2 Global Inequalities
9.3.3 Structural Violence
9.4 Studying In: Addressing Inequities within Anthropology
9.4.1 Suggested Resources
10 The Global Impact of Human Migration
10.1 Peopling of the World
10.1.1 Early Hominin Migrations
10.1.2 Controversies Surrounding the Peopling of the Americas
10.2 Early Global Movements and Cultural Hybridity
10.2.1 Colonialism and Migration as Global Forces
10.2.2 Postcolonialism, Indigenous Identities, and Forced Migration
10.2.3 Globalization in Motion
10.2.4 Diaspora, Transnationalism, and Cultural Hybridity
10.3 Peasantry and Urbanization
10.3.1 Peasantry in Anthropology
10.3.2 Internal Migration: Rural-Urban Continuum
10.4 Inequality along the Margins
10.4.1 Contemporary Types of Migration
10.4.2 Labor Migration and Migrant Routes
10.4.3 Refugees Beyond the Nation-State
10.4.4 Pandemic as a Global Migration
11 Forming Family through Kinship
11.1 What Is Kinship?
11.2 Defining Family and Household
11.2.1 Reading and Using Kinship Charts
11.2.2 Family Types across Cultures
11.2.3 Fictive Kinship
11.2.4 Adoption
11.3 Reckoning Kinship across Cultures
11.3.1 Types of Kinship Systems
11.3.2 Descent
11.3.3 A Matrilineal Society in the United States
11.4 Marriage and Families across Cultures
11.4.1 Anthropological Definition of Marriage
11.4.2 Forms of Marriage
11.4.3 Postmarital Residence Rules
11.4.4 Marriage Compensation
11.4.5 Remarriage Obligations
11.4.6 Arranged Marriages
12 Gender and Sexuality
12.1 Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Anthropology
12.1.1 The Terms: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
12.1.2 Evidence from Biological Anthropology
12.1.3 Evidence from Archaeology
12.2 Performing Gender Categories
12.2.1 Nature, Culture, and the Performance of Gender
12.2.2 Women and Feminist Theories of Gender
12.2.3 Men and Masculinities
12.2.4 Intersex and the Ambiguities of Identity
12.2.5 Multiple Gender and Variant Gender
12.3 The Power of Gender: Patriarchy and Matriarchy
12.3.1 Patriarchy: Ideology and Practice
12.3.2 Matriarchy: Ideology and (Not) Practice
12.3.3 Gender and Power in Everyday Life
12.4 Sexuality and Queer Anthropology
12.4.1 Early Anthropological Studies of Sexuality
12.4.2 Same-Sex and Queer Studies
12.4.3 Transgender Studies
12.4.4 The End of Gender?
12.4.5 Suggested Readings
13 Religion and Culture
13.1 What Is Religion?
13.1.1 Defining Religion, Spirituality, and Worldview
13.1.2 Witchcraft, Sorcery, and Magic
13.1.3 Supernatural Forces and Beings
13.1.4 Religious Specialists
13.1.5 Shamanism
13.1.6 The Institutionalization of Religion
13.2 Symbolic and Sacred Space
13.2.1 Symbolism in Religion
13.2.2 Religious Places
13.3 Myth and Religious Doctrine
13.3.1 The Role of Myth in Religion
13.3.2 A Brief Structural Analysis of a Myth
13.3.3 Oral and Written Religious Traditions
13.4 Rituals of Transition and Conformity
13.4.1 The Varieties of Ritual Experience in Religion
13.4.2 Rites of Intensification
13.4.3 Rites of Passage
13.4.4 Rites of Affliction
13.5 Other Forms of Religious Practice
13.5.1 Utopian Religious Communities
13.5.2 Secular Religion
14 Anthropology of Food
14.1 Food as a Material Artifact
14.1.1 Food Artifacts
14.1.2 Early Archaeological Sites and Food Utensils
14.1.3 Ancient Foodways and Food Reconstructions
14.1.4 Food as Cultural Heritage
14.1.5 Cherokee Ramps
14.2 A Biocultural Approach to Food
14.2.1 Food and the Biocultural Approach
14.2.2 Subsistence and Biocultural Adaptation
14.2.3 Food, Fads, Diets, and Health
14.3 Food and Cultural Identity
14.3.1 Food and Cultural Identity
14.3.2 Food Prescriptions and Proscriptions
14.3.3 Food and Gender
14.4 The Globalization of Food
14.4.1 Globalization of Food
14.4.2 Food Deserts and Oases
15 Anthropology of Media
15.1 Putting the Mass into Media
15.2 Putting Culture into Media Studies
15.3 Visual Anthropology and Ethnographic Film
15.4 Photography, Representation, and Memory
15.4.1 The Gaze of Photography
15.4.2 Photography and the Colonial Gaze
15.4.3 The Modernity of Postcolonial Photography
15.5 News Media, the Public Sphere, and Nationalism
15.6 Community, Development, and Broadcast Media
15.7 Broadcasting Modernity and National Identity
15.8 Digital Media, New Socialities
15.8.1 Digital Socialities: Personal and Political
15.8.2 Digital Shadowlands: Illicit Media
15.8.3 Suggested Readings
16 Art, Music, and Sport
16.1 Anthropology of the Arts
16.1.1 How Do Anthropologists Approach Art?
16.1.2 Studying Prehistoric Art
16.1.3 Interpreting Art
16.1.4 Spiritual Art
16.1.5 Visual Anthropology
16.1.6 The Appreciation of Art
16.1.7 Pottery
16.1.8 Body Art
16.2 Anthropology of Music
16.2.1 Music
16.2.2 Ethnomusicology
16.2.3 Musical Instruments in Prehistory
16.2.4 The Structure and Function of Music in Different Societies
16.2.5 The Importance of Sociocultural Context in Understanding Music
16.2.6 Music as a Basis for Subculture and Community
16.2.7 Cultural Appropriation
16.3 An Anthropological View of Sport throughout Time
16.3.1 The Anthropology of Sports
16.3.2 The Evolution of Sports
16.3.3 Youth Sports
16.4 Anthropology, Representation, and Performance
16.4.1 Cultural Identities
16.4.2 Art as Resistance
16.4.3 Music as Resistance
16.4.4 Sports as Resistance
16.4.5 Integral Features
16.4.6 Resources
17 Medical Anthropology
17.1 What Is Medical Anthropology?
17.1.1 Social Construction of Health
17.1.2 History of Medical Anthropology
17.2 Ethnomedicine
17.3 Theories and Methods
17.3.1 The Importance of Cultural Context
17.3.2 Methods of Medical Anthropology
17.3.3 Theoretical Approaches to Medical Anthropology
17.4 Applied Medical Anthropology
17.4.1 Evolutionary Medicine and Health
17.4.2 Culture and the Brain
17.4.3 Reproduction
17.4.4 The Inequalities of Health
17.4.5 Resources: Explore Medical Anthropology
18 Human-Animal Relationship
18.1 Humans and Animals
18.1.1 The Human-Animal Continuum
18.1.2 Multispecies Ethnography
18.1.3 A Case Study: Domestication of Dogs
18.2 Animals and Subsistence
18.2.1 Human-Animal Empathy in Subsistence
18.2.2 Animal Relationships among Indigenous Hunters
18.2.3 A Case Study: Rock Cree Hunters
18.2.4 Animal Relationships among Nomadic and Transhumant Pastoralists
18.3 Symbolism and Meaning of Animals
18.3.1 Totemism
18.3.2 Animals in Oral Tradition
18.3.3 Animals in Religion
18.4 Pet-Keeping
18.4.1 Pets as Cultural Artifacts
18.4.2 Pet Keeping in Indigenous Societies
18.4.3 The Making of Pets
18.5 Animal Industries and the Animal Trade
18.5.1 Zoos
18.5.2 Ecotourism
18.5.3 Animals and the Medical Industry
18.5.4 Animals in Our Lives
18.5.5 Suggested Films
19 Indigenous Anthropology
19.1 Indigenous Peoples
19.1.1 Minorities in Their Own Lands
19.1.2 Membership in a Tribal Community
19.1.3 Tribal Groups and Communities
19.1.4 20th-Century Challenges
19.1.5 Perspectives
19.2 Colonization and Anthropology
19.2.1 Deloria’s Critique
19.2.2 The Othering of Indigenous Peoples
19.2.3 Cultural Experts and Authority
19.2.4 Indigenous Societies as Colonial Societies
19.2.5 Decolonizing Anthropology
19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
19.3.1 Treaties and Removal
19.3.2 Domestic Dependent Nations
19.3.3 Water, Fishing, and Agency
19.3.4 Culture and Language
19.3.5 Traditional Material Culture
19.3.6 Indigenous Philosophy and Worldviews
19.3.7 Indigenous Critique: Rights, Activism, Appropriation, and Stereotypes
19.3.8 Stereotypes
19.4 Applied and Public Anthropology and Indigenous Peoples
19.4.1 Suggested Readings
20 Anthropology on the Ground
20.1 Our Challenging World Today
20.1.1 Critical Global Challenges
20.1.2 The Ethnosphere
20.2 Why Anthropology Matters
20.2.1 A Uniquely Relevant Discipline
20.2.2 Anthropological Values
20.3 What Anthropologists Can Do
20.3.1 What Anthropologists Do Today
20.3.2 Anthropological Skills and Resources
20.3.3 How Anthropology Can Lead in the Future