German 1 - Hallo

You might have heard the formal greeting Guten Tag , but nowadays everyone says Hallo. If you enter a shop, people will greet you with Hallo.
You might have heard the formal greeting Auf Wiedersehen, but nowadays everyone says Tschüss. If you leave a shop, people will say Tschüss.
to besein
I am (name)Ich bin ...
Ich bin Ulrike.
Ich bin Peter.
to be calledheissen
My name is ...Ich heisse ...
Normally ss is spelled ß in German, but since the invention of the computer and internet this spelling is no longer obliged.
du is informal, so don't use it with strangers, except if they are children. You might use it if your friend brings his buddies along, but generally we tend to first offer someone the right to use du with us.
You have seen 'wie' in the question about the name before. We tend to rather ask 'How is your name?' than 'What is your name?'
What's your name?Wie heisst du?
We tend to ask How is your name? rather than What is your name?
you (polite)Sie
Sie is the formal version of you which you we use with everybody except close friends, family or children. Once we get more friendly with people, we might offer them or they might offer to us to use du instead.
What's your name? (polite)Wie heissen Sie?
to gogehen
du - dative casedir
You will learn more about the dative case later.
How are you?Wie geht es dir?
Sie - dative caseIhnen
Du - dir
Sie - Ihnen

We'll look at how this works out later, just try to link them together in your brain for now :D

How are you? politeWie geht es Ihnen?
good; fine; wellgut
ich - dative casemir
ich - mir
du - dir
Sie - Ihnen
I am fine.Mir geht es gut.
I am fine.Es geht mir gut.
bad; unwellschlecht
I am unwell.Mir geht es schlecht.

Means I am not doing fine.

Mir ist schlecht would mean I feel like vomiting.

Are you doing well?Geht es dir gut?
By starting with the verb we can turn a normal sentence into a yes/no question:
Es geht dir gut = You are doing well
Geht es dir gut? = Are you doing well?
Is your name Peter?Heisst du Peter?
Yes, my name is Peter.Ja, ich heisse Peter.
Are you well? politeGeht es Ihnen gut?
thank youdanke
You might have come across 'Dankeschön'. This word is not used in a regular sentence. It is simply too long. You use it only as a phrase and on special occasions. It means This is really kind of you or pretty thank you with a cherry on top :D
Thank you, I am doing fine.Danke, es geht mir gut.
No, I am not very well.Nein, es geht mir nicht so gut.