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Lesson 185: The Plain Form III: Present Tense Negative Verbs


Conjugating verbs to the negative present tense in the plain form varies depending on the verb's ending. There are three types of endings we need to pay attention to:

  1. Group 2, or いちだん verbs, which all end in -る
  2. Group 1, or だん verbs that end in -う
  3. Group 1, or だん verbs that do not end in -う
  4. The irregular verbs です、ある、する、来る

For いちだん verbs, replace the -る with -ない. For example, 食べる becomes 食べない.

I do not eat cheese because I have an allergy.アレルギー が ある から、 チーズ を べない。
arerugii ga aru kara, tiizu wo tabenai.

For だん verbs that end in -う, change the -う into -わない. For example, 買う becomes 買わない.

Though her voice is beautiful, she doesn't sing.彼女かのじょ の こえ は うつくしい けど、 うたわない。
kanozyo no koe ha utukusii kedo, utawanai.

For だん verbs not ending in -う, change the -sound into an -あ-sound, and add ない. For example, becomes かない.

I won't go again.もう かない。
mou ikanai.
Although (I) don't understand it, (I) like it!からない けど、 き だ よ!
wakaranai kedo, suki da yo!

And finally, the negative plain form for the irregular verbs is as follows:

Plain Form PositivePlain Form Negative

And here are example sentences for each of them:

It is not the real thing.ほんもの じゃ ない。
honmono zya nai.
Don't you have a good idea?いい アイディア が ない か?
ii aidhia ga nai ka?
(I) won't do it.しない。
I won't come today.きょ は ない。
kyou ha konai.
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