World History 2 77 - 5.5 Review Questions

In what part of Europe did Christian humanism develop?
Northern Europe
the British Isles
Southern Europe
Eastern Europe
What practice of the Catholic Church did Martin Luther protest in the Ninety-five Theses?
the sale of indulgences
prayer for souls in purgatory
the translation of the Bible from Latin to German
the doctrine of transubstantiation
For what reason did Henry VIII reject the authority of the Catholic Church?
He was angry that the pope would not annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
He did not believe the pope had the power to forgive people’s sins.
He was angry that the pope had sided with France in its military conflicts with England.
He rejected the Catholic Church’s doctrine of transubstantiation.
Why was the Jesuit order founded?
to educate young Catholic men
to care for the sick
to pray for souls in purgatory
to provide charity for the poor
Their adoption of non-European navigational technology in the Age of Exploration allowed Europeans to
sail out of sight of the European coast
treat sailors who fell sick on long sea voyages
preserve the plant and animal specimens they found in the Americas
detect and avoid storms at sea
How did the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans help initiate the Age of Exploration?
It motivated European nations to search for an all-water route to the Indies that bypassed the Muslim Ottomans.
It made allies of Portugal and Spain, who then became partners in the exploration of the globe.
It provided Portuguese and Spanish soldiers with valuable military experience they used in conquering the Indigenous peoples of the Americas.
It freed funds that had been spent fighting the Ottomans for use in outfitting voyages of exploration.
Along with the desire to grow rich, what motivated Portugal and Spain to explore new lands?
the desire to spread Christianity and counter the influence of Islam
the desire to acquire new medicinal plants to treat infectious diseases
the desire to find new land to relieve population pressure in Europe
the desire to find new food sources to feed Europe’s starving population
What was a result of the Treaty of Tordesillas?
Brazil became a Portuguese colony.
Spain was able to colonize the Philippines.
The Portuguese were prohibited from trading in Africa.
Spanish conquistadors could no longer be granted encomiendas.
How did other European nations respond to the Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal?
They ignored the treaty.
They requested the pope grant them territory as well.
They declared war on Spain and Portugal.
They abandoned their efforts to explore and colonize the Americas.
Why were animal-borne infectious diseases more deadly for Indigenous peoples in the Americas than for Europeans?
Indigenous peoples had never been exposed to the infectious diseases originating in European domesticated animals.
The Indigenous peoples led a nomadic lifestyle so they could not rest when they fell ill.
A genetic mutation made Indigenous peoples more susceptible to bacterial infections.
Indigenous peoples had no experience treating illnesses of any kind.
Which plant was introduced to the Eastern Hemisphere in the Columbian Exchange?
What was a key feature of mercantilist theory?
the measuring of a nation’s wealth in gold and silver
an emphasis on importing more goods than were exported
competition among businesses
a focus on free trade rather than tariffs
According to mercantilist theory, what is the main purpose of colonies?
to provide natural resources for the home country
to serve as a home for excess population in the home country
to offer a haven for religious and political dissidents
to increase national prestige
How did mercantilist policies hurt the working class?
Mercantilism advocated keeping wages low.
The desire to extract profits from colonies led to the abuse of working-class settlers.
The building up of surpluses of gold and silver led to inflation.
Mercantilist policies often led to wars, which had to be fought by working-class soldiers.
What item exchanged in Africa as part of the triangular trade was made using a by-product of the labor of enslaved people?
What is chattel slavery?
a form of slavery in which enslaved people are treated as pieces of property
a form of slavery that results from indebtedness
a form of slavery in which children do not inherit the status of enslaved parents
a form of slavery in which those enslaved are captured as a result of armed conflict
Which crop were most enslaved laborers in the Americas used to grow?
How did the slave trade affect the growth of African manufacturing?
African manufacturing suffered because so many people were taken in the slave trade that there were not enough laborers left.
The availability of large numbers of enslaved workers kept production costs low for African manufacturers.
The need to produce weapons to fight back against European slave traders spurred the development of the firearms industry in Africa.
The exchange of European textiles for enslaved people harmed African cloth producers, who could not compete on quantity or price.

The content of this course has been taken from the free World History, Volume 2: from 1400 textbook by Openstax