Spanish 31 - Demonstratives

This lesson teaches you about demonstratives in Spanish, which can be used to distinguish objects based on their location. Firstly, take a look at the table below.

este libro, estos libros
this book, these books
esta casa, estas casas
this house, these houses
ese libro, esos libros
that book, those books
esa casa, esas casas
that house, those houses
aquel libro, aquellos libros
that book over there
those books over there
aquella casa, aquellas casas
that house over there
those houses over there

As you can see, just as in English, demonstratives can be used as determiners in front of nouns. The only difference is that Spanish has two versions of that. The demonstratives in the third row refer to things that are further away than the demonstratives in the second row.

Demonstratives can also be used as pronouns, which means that you use them by themselves in the place of a noun, as you can see in the table below.

este, estos
this (one), these (ones)
esta, estas
this (one), these (ones)
esto, estos
this (one), these (ones)
ese, esos
that (one), those (ones)
esa, esas
that (one), those (ones)
eso, esos
that (one), those (ones)
aquel, aquellos
that (one) over there
those (ones) over there
aquella, aquellas
that (one) over there
those (ones) over there
aquello, aquellos
that (one) over there
those (ones) over there

The forms in the third column are gender neutral forms. You use these forms to refer to unknown objects or unnamed concepts. Otherwise you use either the masculine or the feminine form, depending on the gender of the noun you are referring to.

Note that the plural form of the masculine demonstratives and the neuter demonstratives are the same.