Just as これ, それ and あれ, この, その and あの are respectively used to speak about things that are close to the speaker, close to the listener, or close to neither of them.
The difference is that whereas the first three words replace the noun, the latter three words are used in front of the noun.
This meat is delicious!
この肉はおいしいです！ kono niku ha oisii desu!
But, that food was mine!
でも、その食べ物は私のでしたよ！ demo, sono tabemono ha watasi no desita yo!
Who is that person (over there)?
あの人はどなたですか？ ano hito ha donata desu ka?
Which apple is yours?
どのりんごがあなたのですか？ dono ringo ga anata no desu ka?
Note that with the question word どの, we have to use が instead of は.
The word どなた is used to say who in a very polite way.
In a later lesson you will learn a more common way to say who in Japanese.