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Lesson 229: The connecting particle や


We previously learned using (and) to connect nouns. In this lesson, we're going to learn the particle (and).

is used to list two or more nouns, and unlike it implies that there are other possible items that have not been listed. For example:

(I) like Italian and Japanese food (among others).イタリア や ほん の もの が き です。
itaria ya nihon no tabemono ga suki desu.
She's good at tennis and swimming (among other things).かのじょ は テニス や およぐの が じょう
kanozyo ha tenisu ya oyoguno ga zyouzu.

can also be used with the adjective など, meaning and so on or etcetera, to explicitly indicate that there are other objects besides those listed.

I went to London and Paris (and other such places) in the winter.ふゆ  ロンドン や パリ など  きました。
huyu ha rondon ya pari nado ni ikimasita.
"What did you eat for breakfast?" "I had some bread and yoghurt and such."あさはん は なに を べた か?」 「パン や ヨーグルト など べた。」
「asagohan ha nani wo tabeta ka?」 「pan ya yooguruto nado tabeta.」
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