World History 2 127 - 8.5 Review Questions

What were peninsulares?
White Europeans born in the Iberian Peninsula who lived in the Spanish American colonies
White people born in America of mixed European and Indigenous descent
White people of Spanish descent born in the Americas and living in the Yucatán Peninsula
White European colonists who were born and lived in the Americas
What were creoles?
White European colonists who were born and lived in the Americas
people born in the Americas of mixed European and native descent
White Europeans born in the Iberian Peninsula who lived in the Spanish American colonies
people born in the Americas of mixed European and African descent
During the Bourbon Era, why did the creole elite adopt Enlightenment ideas?
those ideas justified their desire for more social and political authority
those ideas helped them to effectively govern their colonies
those ideas drew them closer to their English neighbors in British America
those ideas drew them closer to the Spanish nobility
To what did the term casta in Spanish America refer?
a social hierarchy encoded in law and based on what were thought to be inherited characteristics
a nativist label for people of African descent, used during the wars of independence
the lowest social layer, linked to a person’s economic status
people of Indigenous descent who lived in the rural areas
Under the intendancy system, what did the Bourbon kings in Spain do?
tried to stimulate trade and economic development in the Spanish colonies
abolished old taxes in Spanish America and welcomed the help of the Catholic Church
dismantled their fortifications in port cities such as Veracruz, in New Spain
decreased the number of peninsular bureaucrats in the colonial administration
What measure taken by radical French revolutionaries provoked insurrections in the Americas?
the ending of slavery in all French territory
the establishment of national armies
the granting of political equality to all people
the declaration of universal male suffrage
What country was founded after a successful revolt by enslaved people?
What was one characteristic of the Hidalgo revolt in Mexico?
the large-scale participation of the Indigenous and mixed-race labor force
the strong support of conservative creole leaders
Hidalgo’s immediate proclamation of independence
the support of the church hierarchy
What socioeconomic group was stronger at the end of Mexico’s struggles for independence?
wealthy landowners
wealthy merchants
the church hierarchy
mine owners
What did Latin American liberals/patriots usually favor?
increased participation in government
radical land reform
protection of Indigenous communal landholdings
special privileges for the church
The South American wars of independence _____.
did not rely on the support of the majority of the population
received no significant foreign assistance
were not led by military leaders
were not a civil war between patriots and royalists
What was the most important action taken by the Congress of Cúcuta?
the writing of a liberal constitution for a new republican nation, Gran Colombia
the imposition of new taxes
the abolition of slavery
the suppression of male convents
What did Simón Bolívar’s political program for Gran Colombia envision?
a republican system with suffrage restricted to the propertied elite
a monarchy to be ruled by a European king
a republican system based on universal suffrage
an authoritarian form of government based on his own dictatorship
What was the most critical issue discussed at the Guayaquil Conference?
whether independent Spanish America should be monarchical or republican
whether Guayaquil should belong to Peru or Gran Colombia
whether Bolívar or San Martín should have the glory of completing the struggle for independence
how to defeat the Spanish forces in Peru
What did the relocation of the Portuguese monarchy to Brazil do?
ended Brazil's colonial status and made it a kingdom on equal footing with Portugal
resulted in Brazil’s independence from Spanish rule
led to war between Portugal and Great Britain
led to the abolition of slavery in Brazil
What was the event that precipitated the declaration of Brazil's independence?
refusal of Pedro I to obey the Portuguese Cortes’s order to return to Portugal in 1822
French invasion of Portugal in 1807
Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Strangford of 1810
arrival of the Portuguese court in Rio de Janeiro in 1808
How did Brazil differ from the former Spanish colonies after achieving its independence?
Brazil was governed by a monarch even after it became independent.
Brazil abolished slavery soon after achieving independence.
Brazil was reduced to colonial status only a few years after becoming independent.
Brazil gave women the right to vote when it became independent.

The content of this course has been taken from the free World History, Volume 2: from 1400 textbook by Openstax