World History 1 61 - 4.4.1 The History of the Hebrews

The history of the Hebrews recorded in the Bible starts with the beginning of time and the creation of the first man, Adam. However, it is with the life of the patriarch Abraham that we begin to see the emergence of the Hebrews as a distinct group. Abraham, we are told, descended from Noah a thousand years before, and Noah himself descended from Adam a thousand years before that. Relying on the ages and generations referenced in the Hebrew Bible, we can deduce that Abraham was born around 2150 BCE in the Mesopotamian city of Ur. At the age of seventy-five, he left this city and traveled to the land of Canaan in the eastern Mediterranean. There Abraham and his wife Sarah had their first son together, Isaac. Isaac then had a son, Jacob, and Jacob gave birth to twelve sons. From these twelve sons, the traditional Twelve Tribes of Israel descend (Figure 4.36).

A picture of a colorful painting is shown. A man is shown wearing long orange robes with a purple sash across his waist, a white cape on his shoulders, white turban on his head, and sandals on his feet. He has a long white beard. He holds the hand of a shorter boy walking next to him. The boy is pale with reddish short hair. He is barefoot and bare chested with a blue cloth tied around his waist. Another boy is walking next to him with his arm around the first boy. He wears a red cloth hanging from his left shoulder and going around his waist. He has black hair and a small cap on his head. The bottom right of the picture shows sheep and rams walking with the people. In the back are two camels with women in long robes and white scarves on their heads riding atop the humps. Each woman has two small children with her either naked or in white cloths around their waists. In the back right is another woman on a camel in a white shirt and red scarf on her head holding one naked child in front of her. Behind the sheep and rams walk two figures, one holding on to an animals walking between them while the other has a sheep around his neck. The ground is gray and cracked and small green bushes are seen at the left of the painting. The sky behind is varying hues of purple, blue, and cream.
Figure 4.36 The Bible explains that Abraham migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan, as represented in this nineteenth-century painting by a Hungarian artist, and there he eventually had children and grandchildren. (credit: “The Departure of Abraham” by Hungarian National Gallery/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

While this chronology explains how the Hebrews found themselves in Canaan, there is little to support it. There are no archaeological sites we can reference, and the only evidence we have for Abraham, his trip from Mesopotamia, and his children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren comes from the Hebrew Bible. This has led some to suspect that the stories of Abraham and his family may have been developed much later than the Bible suggests. And in fact, historians have traced the story of Abraham to sources written down between the tenth and sixth centuries BCE. It is possible that Abraham was a historical person and part of an ancient migration recounted for centuries in oral form, but without additional records or archaeological discoveries that attest to his existence, we cannot know for sure.

The Hebrew Bible notes that Joseph, one of Abraham’s twelve great-grandsons, ended up in Egypt. Later, around 1800 BCE based on the biblical chronology, Joseph’s family joined him, and his descendants lived there for several generations. During this long time in Egypt, the Bible explains that the descendants of Joseph experienced increasingly poor treatment, including being enslaved by the (unnamed) Egyptian pharaoh and put to work on building projects in the Nile delta (Figure 4.37). Later, the pharaoh decided to kill all the male Hebrew children, but one was saved from the slaughter by being hidden in a basket to float down the Nile. He was discovered by the pharaoh’s daughter, who named him Moses and raised him among the Egyptian royalty as her own.

A picture of a painting is shown. In the middle there is a wooden cart with a large golden lion statue on top. Hordes of people are seen struggling to pull and push the cart toward the right on sandy colored ground, wearing various cloths and barefoot. Some are naked. Atop the cart are two dark skinned men, one with a whip in the air while the other holds a white umbrella over the man with the whip. In front of the cart a man is shown on the ground with a man and woman bent over him. Another smaller cart is shown to the right with a large coil of brown rope with a person sitting atop the rope pulled by three men. Behind the statue is a person in long robes sitting in a portable throne being carried by four people in white cloths at their waists. Behind this scene are white and off-white buildings of various shapes and sizes with colorful scenes drawn on the walls. There is a tall brown obelisk in front of one of the buildings on the right with etchings from top to bottom. Next to the obelisk on either side of a large rectangular doorway are two tall black statues of figures wearing elaborate headdresses. In the far left background pyramids can be seen as well as sandy mountains.
Figure 4.37 The Bible explains that, as represented in this monumental nineteenth-century painting by the English artist Edward Poynter, the Hebrews were enslaved and oppressed in Egypt. (credit: “Israel in Egypt” by Guildhall Art Gallery/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

The Bible continues the story by explaining that the adult Moses discovered who he actually was and demanded that the pharaoh release the Hebrews and allow them to return to Canaan. After experiencing a number of divine punishments issued by the Hebrew god, the pharaoh reluctantly agreed. The Hebrews’ flight from Egypt included a protracted trek across the Sinai desert and into Canaan, during which they agreed to worship only the single god Yahweh and obey his laws. This period of their history is often called the Exodus, because it records their mass migration out of Egypt and eventually to Canaan. Once in Canaan, Moses’s general Joshua led several military campaigns against the inhabitants, which allowed the Hebrews to settle the land.

The details in the biblical account of the Hebrews’ life in Egypt and their exodus from that kingdom have led some scholars to associate these stories with the period of Hyksos rule. It was then, during the Second Intermediate Period, that the Canaanites flooded into the Nile delta and took control, and it may be that the story of Joseph and his family entering Egypt preserves a memory of that process. The exact time of the exodus from Egypt has been difficult for historians to determine for a number of reasons, not least of which is the fact that the Bible does not name the Egyptian pharaohs of the Exodus period.

Yet some features of the biblical account indicate there was in fact some type of exodus. For example, Moses’s name is Egyptian and not Hebrew, suggesting he came from Egypt. The Bible also names the two midwives who traveled with the group, leading some scholars to conclude there was some oral tradition about a very small group that may have crossed the Sinai into Canaan, though not the very large group described in the Bible. As for the story of the conquests of Joshua, the archaeological record simply does not support this. Even at the site of Jericho, extensive archaeological work has been unable to prove that the city was destroyed when and in the way the Bible describes. This absence of strong evidence has led most to conclude that there likely was no conquest, and that there was already a population of Hebrews in Canaan who were later joined by a smaller group from Egypt.

In Their Own Words

What Is in a Name?

Without archaeological or other evidence, historians have had to rely on the Hebrew Bible for clues about the Exodus. One possible hint comes from the Bible’s book of Exodus, which describes the birth of Moses, his mother’s effort to save him from slaughter, and his discovery and adoption by the pharaoh’s daughter (Figure 4.38).

A picture of a colorful painting is shown. A woman in an elaborate lavender dress is shown sitting on a palanquin. She has long black hair with a colorful band and holds a short whip and flowers in her hands. She is being fanned with decorative white feathers by men in long white robes standing on the ground. The palanquin is shown being carried by six men in the back clad in white cloths at their waists. They are all bald. She is looking happily at a basket being carried next to her by two women in white cloths tied at their waists and decorations around their neck and head. The backet is decorated with hanging flowers and a baby with black hair lays in white blankets inside the basket. Blue flowers line the bottom forefront of the painting. Water lays behind the scene and in the far background a sandy expanse can be seen littered with people, buildings, and trees.
Figure 4.38 This 1904 Anglo-Dutch painting called The Finding of Moses represents the biblical account of the pharaoh’s daughter discovering the infant Moses floating in a basket on the Nile. (credit: “The Finding of Moses” by Lawrence Alma-Tadema/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi. And the woman conceived, and bare a son: and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months. And when she could no longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink. And his sister stood afar off, to witness what would be done to him. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river; and her maidens walked along by the river's side; and when she saw the ark among the flags, she sent her maid to fetch it. And when she had opened it, she saw the child: and, behold, the babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children. Then said his [Moses’s] sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee? And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the maid went and called the child's mother. And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the woman took the child, and nursed it. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses: and she said, Because I drew him out of the water.

—Exodus 2:1-10 (KJV)

As this story explains, the pharaoh’s daughter named Moses to reflect the fact that she “drew him out of the water.” Some scholars believe this phrase is a reference to the Hebrew word mashah, meaning to “draw out,” which sounds similar to the Hebrew pronunciation of Moses, Mosheh. That explanation would have made sense to Hebrew readers of the Bible, but it does not make sense that an Egyptian princess would speak Hebrew. While this problem makes it difficult to take the story seriously as evidence, it does raise an interesting question.

Is the biblical account actually an attempt to explain a Hebrew man’s name that was not Hebrew but Egyptian? In Egyptian, Moses means “child of.” It would have been part of a larger name such as Thutmose, which means “child of [the god] Thoth.” The fact that Hebrew tradition tried to explain his Egyptian name suggests to some that Moses may have been a real person with Egyptian heritage. That, in turn, suggests there is some validity to the Exodus story itself.

  • Does the scholarly interpretation of the name Moses as Egyptian in origin seem credible to you? Why or why not?
  • What does this story reveal about family relationships in the period?

The biblical book of Judges describes how the Hebrews moved into the hills of Canaan and lived as members of twelve tribes. In the book of Samuel, we hear how they faced oppression from the Philistines, one of the many Sea Peoples groups. To better defend themselves against the Philistines, the Hebrews organized themselves into a kingdom they called Israel. Their first leader, Saul, became king around 1030 BCE but failed to rule properly. The second king, David, not only ruled effectively but also was able to drive back the Philistines.

The Hebrews, properly referred to as Israelites in this period because of their formation of the Kingdom of Israel, now entered a golden age in their history. David suppressed the surrounding kingdoms, made Jerusalem his capital, and established a shrine there to the Israelite god Yahweh. This more organized kingdom was then left to David’s son Solomon, who furthered the organization of Israel, made alliances with surrounding kingdoms, and embarked on numerous construction projects, the most important of which was a large temple to Yahweh in Jerusalem.

Historians call the period of these three kings—Saul, David, and Solomon—the united monarchy period. Archaeological work and extrabiblical sources support many biblical claims about the era. For example, there was a threat to the Hebrews from the Philistines, who were likely one of the many groups of migrants moving, often violently, around the eastern Mediterranean during the period of the Late Bronze Age Collapse. We have Egyptian and other records of these migrants, some specifically mentioning the Philistines by name. It seems likely that the founding of Israel was a response to this threat.

As for the existence of Saul and David, things are less clear. The Bible provides several conflicting accounts of how these two men became king. For example, Saul is made king when he is found hiding among some baggage, but also after leading troops in a dramatic rescue. Similar confusion surrounds David, though it seems clear he became an enemy of Saul at some point and was able to make himself king. Despite these contradictions, there is one piece of archaeological evidence for the existence of King David. The Tel Dan stele discovered in the Golan Heights in the 1990s makes reference to the “house of David,” meaning the kingdom of David (Figure 4.39). However, no similar archaeological evidence has been unearthed for David’s son Solomon. Indeed, evidence of Solomon’s most famous achievement, the building of the first temple in Jerusalem, has yet to be discovered. However, we have strong archaeological evidence for some of his other public works projects, such as the three-thousand-year-old gates discovered at Gezer, Hazor, and Megiddo.

A piece of a broken brownish stone fragment is shown. Inscriptions are seen all over the stone.
Figure 4.39 This stone fragment from the Tel Dan stele dates from the ninth century BCE and was discovered in the 1990s. It includes an inscription that reads “house of David,” making it the only non-biblical source attesting to the existence of King David. (credit: modification of work “Aramaic Inscription on Basalt Monument, Dan, 9th Century BC” by Gary Todd/Flickr, CC0 1.0)

After the death of Solomon, the period of the united monarchy came to an end, and Israel split into two kingdoms, Israel in the north and Judah in the south. This inaugurated the period of the divided monarchy (Figure 4.40). Jerusalem remained the capital of Judah, while Samaria was the capital of Israel. The northern kingdom was the larger and wealthier of the two and exerted influence over and sometimes warred with Judah. The biblical account often puts the kings of the northern kingdom in a negative light, noting that they abused their subjects and incorporated elements of foreign religious traditions in their worship of Yahweh.

On the left, a map of the Middle East is shown. A box includes Cyprus, the western half of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and the northeastern corner of Egypt. A second map shows this region larger. Along the Mediterranean Sea's eastern coast, a section of land is highlighted orange and labeled Kingdom of Israel. Inside this region, there is a star indicating Samaria. Other cities include Shechem, Jerash, Beit El, Jericho, and Jaffa. Above this are, not highlighted are the cities of Damascus and then Byblos and Acre along the coast. South of the orange highlighted region is a smaller region highlighed green and labeled Kingdom of Judah. Inside this region, a star indicates Jerusalem. Other cities in this region include Lachish, Hebron, and Beersheba.
Figure 4.40 After the reign of Solomon, the united monarchy of the Israelites split into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel.(attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license)

With the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansion into Canaan, Israel and Judah entered a new era under foreign domination within the Assyrian-controlled Near East. Anti-Assyrian sentiment in both kingdoms and the Neo-Assyrians’ desire to control the eastern Mediterranean eventually led to multiple Assyrian attacks on Israel. The most devastating occurred in 722 BCE, when thousands of Israelites were deported to other parts of the empire, as was the Assyrians’ custom.

Prophets in Judah interpreted the destruction of Israel as punishment for its having veered from the covenant with Yahweh. They called for religious reforms in Judah in order to avoid a similar fate. While Judah was incorporated into the Neo-Assyrian Empire, it avoided the destruction experienced by Israel. However, the defeat of Assyria by the Neo-Babylonians brought new challenges to Judah. Resistance to Babylon led to punishments and forced deportations in 597 BCE, and finally to the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple in 586 BCE.

The many Judeans deported to Babylon after the fall of Jerusalem were settled in Mesopotamia and expected to help repopulate areas that had been devastated by wars. Many assimilated into Babylonian culture and became largely indistinguishable from other Mesopotamians. Some, however, retained their Judean culture and religious beliefs. For these Judeans, the Babylonian exile, as it was called, was a time of cultural and religious revival. They edited various earlier Hebrew writings and combined them into a larger work, thus giving shape to the core of the Hebrew Bible. Finally, with the rise of the Persian Empire and its conquest of Babylonia, the Persian king Cyrus the Great permitted the unassimilated Judeans to return to Judah. They went in two major waves over the next few decades and began a process of reconstruction that eventually included the rebuilding of Yahweh’s temple at Jerusalem.

The content of this course has been taken from the free World History, Volume 1: to 1500 textbook by Openstax