World History 1 173 - 11.2 The Arab-Islamic Conquests and the First Islamic States

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain the motivations for Islamic expansion during the seventh and eighth centuries
  • Identify where and how Islam expanded during the seventh and eighth centuries
  • Discuss the establishment of the first Islamic dynasty in the Middle East
  • Describe the nature of Islamic society during the seventh and eighth centuries

When Muhammad died in 632 CE, members of the early Muslim ummah needed to immediately answer several important questions. Who was capable of now leading the community, of following in the footsteps of a leader who claimed prophecy—the ability to communicate with God—when none of those who remained could do so? Another critical question was about the survival of the community: what, exactly, had Muhammad accomplished by uniting the Arab tribes, and where would they go from here? The first few years following Muhammad’s death tested the community’s resolve while its members sought to articulate what made this moment in their history unique.

This lesson has no exercises.

The content of this course has been taken from the free World History, Volume 1: to 1500 textbook by Openstax