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Lesson : The copulas part 2: Evidential Copula

Next up we have the evidential copula -(y)mİş. Like the past copula, it is also used to turn nouns into predicates. Example:

(Apparently) That car was new. O araba yeniymiş.

What makes the evidential copula tricky is this: it can convey the meaning of past, or it can convey the meaning of heard-aboutness without being in the past. Take a look at these examples:

Evidential copula combined with Turkish English
Continuous öl-üyor-muş-uz (Apparently) We were dying.
Future Film az sonra bit-ecek-miş.1 (Apparently) The movie is going to end in a bit.
Obligation and Necessity Küçük kardeşim ödevini yap-malı-ymış. (Apparently) My little sibling should have done his/her homework.
Conditional Görevinizi yap-sa-ymış-sınız (Apparently) If you had done your duty
Aorist Her sabah süt iç-er-miş-im.2 (Apparently) Every morning I drank milk.
1Here the -mİş only conveys the meaning of heard-about. So even though we have -miş it's not in the past.

2Here the -mİş conveys a past habit and that the speaker heard this from other sources, that he doesn't remember this first-hand.

Evidential copula does not combine with regular past tense. That is to say forms like -Dİymİş, yaptıymış does not exist.

However evidential copula combines with evidential past tense, and it gives a unique meaning:

Evidential copula combined with Turkish English
Evidential Past Gülmüş-müş-üm. (Allegedly, supposedly) I laughed (but I believe I didn't.).

Evidential copula can be combined with conditional copula, which you will see in part 3 of the copula series.

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