Turkish has two words for saying black. They are siyah and kara. It also has two words for saying white. They are beyaz and ak. It also has two words for saying red. They are kırmızı and al.
However, kırmızı, siyah and beyaz are far more commonly used than al, kara and ak. So normally you should use kırmızı, siyah and beyaz.
You can make a color lighter by putting açık in front of it, and darker by putting koyu in front of it. So light blue is açık mavi and dark green is koyu yeşil in Turkish.