German 25 - Die Geschichte des kleinen Mannes - Teil 4: Das Abenteuer

QuestionAnswer
the adventure
noun
das Abenteuer
the stress
noun
der Stress
Since our latest Spelling Reform, Stress cannot be spelled with ß
full
adjectiveadverb
voll
full of
adjective
voller
full of stress
phrase
voller Stress
was past of to be
war
The day was full of stress.
sentence
Der Tag war voller Stress.
The work was full of stress.
sentence
Die Arbeit war voller Stress.
now
adverb
jetzt
the break
noun
die Pause
the noon break; the lunch break
noun
die Mittagspause
words that end in -tag take an s if they are in first position of a combo.

However the word Tag itself changes into Tages.

die Mittagspause (the lunch break)

das Sonntagsessen (the Sunday meal)

die Tageszeit (the time of day)

But now he has a break.
sentence
Aber jetzt hat er eine Pause.
the time
noun
die Zeit
the noon time
sentence
die Mittagszeit
lunch
sentence
das Mittagessen
Here we hit an exception. For some obscure reason this word doesn't take an additional s.

Maybe this combo has been used so much, that it really melted into one word. Who knows....

Now the little man has lunch break.
sentence
Jetzt hat der kleine Mann Mittagspause.
to drink
verb
trinken
He goes to drink a coffee.
sentence
Er geht einen Kaffee trinken.
the coffee shop
noun
das Café
a coffee shop
phrase
ein Café
He goes into a coffee shop.
sentence
Er geht in ein Café.
in order to
conjunction
um zu
+ infinitive
in order to drink
phrase
um zu trinken
He goes into a coffee shop in order to drink a coffee.
sentence
Er geht in ein Café, um einen Kaffee zu trinken.
a small coffee shop
sentence
ein kleines Café
the indefinite neutral adjective takes an s

das kleine Café
ein kleines Café

das große Kind
ein großes Kind

It is a small coffee shop.
sentence
Es ist ein kleines Café.
a cup
sentence
eine Tasse
a small cup
phrase
eine kleine Tasse
for feminine there is no change in the indefinite adjective.

die kleine Tasse
eine kleine Tasse

die kleine Frau
eine kleine Frau

a table
phrase
ein Tisch
a small table
phrase
ein kleiner Tisch
the masculine undetermined adjective takes an r

der kleine Tisch
ein kleiner Tisch

der kleine Mann
ein kleiner Mann

oneself
pronoun
sich
to set; to put
verb
setzen
to sit down
verb
sich setzen
important: this is a movement towards a direction (down) you are standing and moving into a sitting position.
on; to; at
preposition
an
He sits down at a little table.
sentence
Er setzt sich an einen kleinen Tisch.
an (at) is a preposition that can work with both dative and accusative case.

Accusative is the case of movement towards a direction.

an einen kleinen Tisch

is accusative

He is moving into a sitting position at the table.

Don't worry at this stage too much about the forms. We will tackle that later, but try to grasp the idea of when to use the accusative.

to be sitting/ to sit
verb
sitzen
This is a verb indicating a position. (not a movement).

It can be followed by a preposition and a dative

He sits at a little table.
sentence
Er sitzt an einem kleinen Tisch.
Now he finished the process of sitting down, he is situated at the table. We are no longer talking about the direction of a movement but about the location, where the man is at.

an einem kleinen Tisch

is Dative

When we want to describe a location, we use prepositions followed by a dative.

in einem Café

an einem Tisch

the corner
noun
die Ecke
in the corner location > dative
phrase
in der Ecke
He sits down at a little table in the corner.
sentence
Er setzt sich an einen kleinen Tisch in der Ecke.
He is sitting down. (direction >accusative) The table is standing in the corner (location>dative)

It would be a different case if we said:

He sits down in the corner.

In this case we would have a movement into the corner. >Accusative

Er setzt sich in die Ecke.

the neighbour
noun
der Nachbar
the neighbour table
noun
der Nachbartisch
at the masculine

_ _ + _ _ _ = _ _

phrase
an + dem = aman + dem = am
at the masculine, neuter
preposition
am
at the neighbour table
sentence
am Nachbartisch
A beautiful woman is sitting at the neighbour table.
sentence
Am Nachbartisch sitzt eine schöne Frau.
to order food etc.
verb
bestellen
He orders a coffee.
sentence
Er bestellt einen Kaffee.
accusative (direct object)
to see /look
verb
sehen
times; once
noun
mal
Have a look!
phrase
Sieh mal!
My my!/Look at that!/Didn't see that coming./Hear hear!
phrase
Sieh mal an!
here
adverb
hier
about; over; via
preposition
über
towards here
adverb
herüber
her means towards here

über means over

The combination of both words describes a movement towards the speaker.

The opposite of her is hin meaning towards there

hinüber describes a movement away from the speaker.

A way to remember this is the movement of the swing. It goes forth (away) and back, forth and back = hin und her, hin und her...

The woman looks at him. lit. The woman looks towards here
sentence
Die Frau sieht herüber.
Dative form of er
pronoun
ihm
at him
phrase
zu ihm
zu + Dative form of er
The woman looks at him.
sentence
Die Frau sieht zu ihm herüber.
to smile
verb
lächeln
she smiles
phrase
sie lächelt
She smiles at him.
sentence
Sie lächelt zu ihm herüber.
We are watching the story from the eyes of the little man. So the smile comes towards us: herüber
back
adverb
zurück
He smiles back.
sentence
Er lächelt zurück.
We could have used our new word hinüber. here:

Er lächelt zu ihr hinüber.

to come
verb
kommen
The coffee arrives.
sentence
Der Kaffee kommt.
to say
verb
sagen
The woman says:
phrase
Die Frau sagt:
Sit down! (formal)
sentence
Setzen Sie sich!
why don't you
adverb
doch
Why don't you sit down with me!?!
sentence
Setzen Sie sich doch zu mir!
The little man is happy.
sentence
Der kleine Mann ist glücklich.
He sits down with the woman.
sentence
Er setzt sich zu der Frau.
we don't use 'with' (mit) here in German. It would mean that they both sit down together. Since the woman sits already, the man is sitting down 'to' the woman: zu.
a bit, a little
adverb
ein bisschen
no ß!
shy, timid
adjective
schüchtern
He is a little shy.
sentence
Er ist ein bisschen schüchtern.
to like; to want
verb
mögen
Accusative form of er
sentence
ihn
The woman likes him.
sentence
Die Frau mag ihn.
nevertheless, nonetheless
adverb
trotzdem
The woman likes him nonetheless.
sentence
Die Frau mag ihn trotzdem.
To be continued.
sentence
Fortsetzung folgt.

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